Rabu, 29 Mei 2013

Grammar On Toefl Test

TENSES
1. Simple present tense
    This tense is usually not use to indicate present time. However, it is used to indicate present time (now) with the following stative verbs; know, understand, have, believe, hate, need, hear love, appear, see, see, like seem, smell, want, taste, wish, sound, and own. Simple present tense is also used to indicate a regular or habitual action.
Examples :
·                     She loves her parents every time
·                     I get holiday every sunday
2. Present Progressive (continuous)
Subject  +  {am; is;  are}  +  [verb + ing]
   The  present progressive is used to indicate present time (now) with all but the stative verbs listed previously. It is also used to indicate future time.
Examples :
·                     I am writing a letter now
·                     We are working hard for this time
3. Simple Past Tense
    The simple past is used for a completed action that happened at one specific time in the past.
Examples :
·                     She advised her friend when they went togethet last day
·                     I eat rice because I felt hungry
4. Past Progressive (continuous)
Use of Past Progressive
a.. puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past
    Example: He was playing football.
b. two actions happening at the same time (in the past)
    Example: While she was preparing dinner, he was washing the dishes.
c. action going on at a certain time in the past
    Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang
5. Present Perfect
Subject  +  [has/have]  +  [verb in past participle] …
   We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
Examples :
·                     have seen that movie twenty times.
·                     We have already written our reports
·                     Maria hasn’t called her parents yet
6. Present Perfect Progressive (continuous)
Subject  +  [has/have]  +  been  +  [verb+ing]
Use of Present Perfect Progressive
a. puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result)
    Example: She has been writing for two hours.
b. action that recently stopped or is still going on
    Example: I have been living here since 2001.
c. finished action that influenced the present
    Example: I have been working all afternoon.
7. Past Perfect
Subject  +  had  +  [verb in past participle]…
           
Examples :
·                     You had studied English before you moved to New York.
·                     John went home after he had gone to the store
8. Past Perfect Progressive (continuous)
Subject  + had  + been  +  [verb+ing]…
Examples :
Nate had been working at the university forforty-five years before he retired
 
 
 
The Example of Grammar in Toefl Questions


1. In 1791, Quebec was divided into two
sections, Upper Canada and Lower Canada,
_____________ were ruled by elected
assemblies.
(A) they both
(B) both of them
(C) in which both
(D) both of which
Answer : D (both of which)
 This choice correctly follows the pattern quantifier + of + relative pronoun.
2. A number of the materials used in manufacturing paint are potential dangerous if mishandled.
            A                                                                          B        C                              D
Answer : C (potential)
 An adverb (potentially), not an adjective (potential), is needed.
3. __________ experimental studies of the
aging process, psychologist Ross McFarland
determined that people could work
productively much longer than had
previously been thought.
(A) In that
(B) Through
(C) Since
(D) Into
Answer : B (Through)
 This sentence can be correctly completed only with an introductory prepositional phrase (Through experimental studies).
 
sumber:  
- http://melaniapuspa.blogspot.com/2013/05/grammar-toefl-test.html
- http://ardikahenrisal.blogspot.com/2012/04/contoh-soal-toefl-dan-pembahasannya.html

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